Critique of testimony of James E. Hansen

By Sherwood B. Idso and Craig D. Idso —— Bio and Archives December 17, 2007

Comments | Print Friendly | Subscribe | Email Us

A critique of the 26 April 2007 testimony of James E. Hansen made to the Select Committee of Energy Independence and Global Warming of the United States House of Representatives entitled “Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate”

Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change

6 June 2007

Introductory Remarks

If there is any human enterprise that should be free of appeal to authority, it is science, where observation and impartial analysis are supposed to reign supreme. However, when the outcome of an ongoing scientific investigation is perceived to be a powerful catalyst for governmental action by the world’s community of nations, and when the leading policy prescription for those actions is something akin to a massive restructuring of the way the energy that runs the modern world is produced, distributed and used - and especially if the policy is developed before all pertinent data have been acquired and properly analyzed - this principle can easily be forgotten. In such circumstances, and even more so if the subject being studied is extremely complex - such as how human activity will impact global climate centuries into the future - and when a divergence of views develops because of ambiguities in the observations and different methods of analysis, it is important that personal opinion be clearly differentiated from demonstrable fact. Sadly, however, this distinction is hard to make on a consistent basis, even for some of the very best of the world’s scientists.


After a careful study of the claims made by James Hansen in his testimony of 26 April 2007 to the Select Committee of Energy Independence and Global Warming of the US House of Representatives, we find that much of what he contends is contradicted by real-world observations.

Although Hansen speaks of a sea level rise this century measured in meters, due to “the likely demise of the West Antarctic ice sheet,” the most recent and comprehensive review of potential sea level rise due to contributions arising from the wastage of both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets suggests a century-long rise of only 35 millimeters, based on the results of 14 satellite-derived estimates of imbalances of the polar ice sheets that have been obtained since 1998. In addition, whereas Hansen claims that the rate of sea level rise is accelerating, century-scale data sets indicate that the mean rate-of-rise of the global ocean has either not accelerated at all over the latter part of the 20th century or has actually slowed.

Another of Hansen’s claims that is at odds with reality is that atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are “skyrocketing,” for several studies of methane (which has historically provided a climate forcing equivalent to approximately half that provided by CO2) have demonstrated that its atmospheric concentration actually stabilized several years ago and has ceased to rise further. This development - which was totally unanticipated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change at the time of its last major report, and which was vehemently denied to even be occurring when it was first observed - effectively repudiates Hansen’s contentions about the need to act immediately to curtail anthropogenic CO2 emissions, for this unforeseen circumstance has already done more than humanity could ever hope to do in the foreseeable future in terms of reducing the atmosphere’s radiative impetus for warming; and it has thereby given us considerable extra time to determine what the true status of earth’s climate really is, as well as what we should, or should not, do about it.

So what is the “true status” of earth’s climate? It is perhaps best understood by noting that the earth is not any warmer now - and is possibly a fair amount cooler - than it was at many other times in the past. These warmer-than-present periods include much of the Medieval Warm Period of a thousand years ago, most of the Climatic Optimum that held sway during the central portion of the current interglacial, and significant portions of all four of the prior interglacials, when - in all six cases - the air’s CO2 concentration was much lower than it is today.

Why are these facts important? They are important because they demonstrate that today’s temperatures are not in any way unusual, unnatural or unprecedented, contrary to what Hansen claims. In fact, today’s temperatures are just what should be expected, as a result of the natural (non-CO2-induced) recovery of the planet from the global chill of the several-hundred-year-long Little Ice Age, which in many parts of the world was the coldest period of the current interglacial, and which was definitely not caused by a decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the centuries that preceded it, because there was no CO2 decline then, which further implies that a reversal of whatever did cause the Little Ice Age is likely what has led to its demise and the subsequent increase in mean global air temperature.
Hansen also foresees a warming-induced “extermination of a large fraction of plant and animal species,” with many at high latitudes and altitudes being “pushed off the planet.” However, as demonstrated by the scientific studies we cite, warming - especially when accompanied by an increase in the atmosphere’s CO2 concentration - typically results in an expansion of the ranges of terrestrial plants and animals, leading to increases in biodiversity almost everywhere on the planet. Likewise, where Hansen sees nothing but “destruction of coral reefs and other ocean life” in response to a predicted CO2-induced acidification of the world’s oceans, real-world observations suggest just the opposite.

One thing that Hansen does not foresee, however, is the shortfall in food production that may exist just a few short decades from now. Even considering hoped-for advancements in agricultural expertise and anticipated improvements in farming techniques, a number of knowledgeable scientists project there will be insufficient food to support the human population of the planet expected in the year 2050, unless humanity usurps all of the earth’s remaining freshwater resources, as well as a good proportion of its cultivatable land, merely to grow what we will need to sustain ourselves at that point in time. These actions, if taken, will drastically reduce the amount of natural habitat available for the many plant and animal species with which we share the planet, insuring the extinctions of vast numbers of them, unless the air’s CO2 content continues to rise, so that the crop productivity enhancement provided by CO2’s aerial fertilization effect, along with the increase in crop water use efficiency provided by its anti-transpiration effect, can obviate the need for the land and water takings that will otherwise be required to meet the predicted shortfall in agricultural production.

In light of these several observations, it is clear there is another whole side to the CO2-climate issue in addition to the one described by Hansen; and the things that Hansen ignores totally alter the way the issue must be approached for a successful resolution of the multiple dilemmas confronting us. No longer can the actions that Hansen proposes be described as constituting a no-regrets insurance policy, as the world’s climate alarmists typically characterize them. There are “regrets” associated with these policy proposals, and they may be even more horrific than the catastrophes imagined by Hansen. Consequently, it can be appreciated that the donning of the “cloak of morality” is not as easily accomplished in the real world of nature as it is in the virtual world of climate modeling, which continues to ignore many of the non-climatic effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment to - we believe - the detriment of humanity and nature alike.


As a result of our analysis of Hansen’s testimony, we find very little evidence to justify his policy prescriptions for dealing with what he calls a “dangerous climate change,” but we find significant evidence for an impending world food supply-and-demand problem that may well prove even more devastating to the biosphere - including both humanity and “wild nature” - than what Hansen contends will occur in response to business-as-usual anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

A complication introduced by this more recently recognized problem is that its solution would appear to involve our not allowing human-induced CO2 emissions to be restricted,

which is just the opposite of what Hansen’s policy prescriptions encourage. Clearly, the several interrelated aspects of this many-faceted conundrum demonstrate that it is vastly more complex than how Hansen has characterized it in his testimony and, therefore, that its solution is likely not to be found in the policies he prescribes.

The full article, with clearly defined scientific scrutiny is available online at the address mentioned above. Please read it an inform yourselves.



Alley, R.B., Anandakrishnan, S., Dupont, T.K., Parizek, B.R. and Pollard, D. 2007. Effect of sedimentation on ice-sheet grounding-line stability. Science 315: 1838-1841.
Anandakrishnan, S., Catania, G.A., Alley, R.B. and Horgan, H.J. 2007. Discovery of till deposition at the grounding line of Whillans Ice Stream. Science 315: 1835-1838.

Anderson, J.B. 2007. Ice sheet stability and sea-level rise. Science 315: 1803-1804.

Bartlein, P.J., Webb, T., III. and Fleri, E. 1984. Holocene climatic change in the northern Midwest: Pollen-derived estimates. Quaternary Research 22: 361-374.

Bessat, F. and Buigues, D. 2001. Two centuries of variation in coral growth in a massive Porites colony from Moorea (French Polynesia): a response of ocean-atmosphere variability from south central Pacific. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 175: 381-392.

Bekki, S., Law, K.S. and Pyle, J.A. 1994. Effect of ozone depletion on atmospheric CH4 and CO concentrations. Nature 371: 595-597.

Bernabo, J.C. and Webb III, T. 1977. Changing patterns in the Holocene pollen record of northeastern North America: A mapped summary. Quaternary Research 8: 64-96.

Bischoff, W.W., Mackenzie, F.T. and Bishop, F.C. 1987. Stabilities of synthetic magnesian calcites in aqueous solution: Comparison with biogenic materials. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51: 1413-1423.

Brussaard, C.P.D., Gast, G.J., van Duyl, F.C. and Riegman, R. 1996. Impact of phytoplankton bloom magnitude on a pelagic microbial food web. Marine Ecology Progress Series 144: 211-221.

Buddemeier, R.W., Lkeypas, J.A. and Aronson, R.B. 2004. Coral Reefs & Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. The Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, USA.

Carricart-Ganivet, J.P. 2004. Sea surface temperature and the growth of the West Atlantic reef-building coral Montastraea annularis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 302: 249-260.

Charlson, R.J., Lovelock, J.E., Andrea, M.O. and Warren, S.G. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326: 655-661.

Chen, X. and Gao, K. 2004. Characterization of diurnal photosynthetic rhythms in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum grown in synchronous culture under ambient and elevated CO2. Functional Plant Biology 31: 399-404.

Church, J.A., White, N.J., Coleman, R., Lambert, K. and Mitrovica, J.X. 2004. Estimates of the regional distribution of sea level rise over the 1950-2000 period. Journal of Climate 17: 2609-2625.

Clausen, C.D. and Roth, A.A. 1975. Effect of temperature and temperature adaptation on calcification rate in the hematypic Pocillopora damicornis. Marine Biology 33: 93-100.

Coles, S.L. and Coles. P.L. 1977. Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic corals. Marine Biology 43: 209-216.

COHMAP Members. 1988. Climatic changes of the last 18,000 years: Observations and model simulations. Science 241: 1043-1052.

Cowling, S.A. 1999. Plants and temperature - CO2 uncoupling. Science 285: 1500-1501.

Crabbe, M.J.C., Wilson, M.E.J. and Smith, D.J. 2006. Quaternary corals from reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia, show similar growth rates to modern corals from the same area. Journal of Quaternary Science 21: 803-809.

Davis, M.B., Spear, R.W. and Shane, L.C.K. 1980. Holocene climate of New England. Quaternary Research 14: 240-250.

De Luis, J., Irigoyen, J.J. and Sanchez-Diaz, M. 1999. Elevated CO2 enhances plant growth in droughted N2-fixing alfalfa without improving water stress. Physiologia Plantarum 107: 84-89.

Dickson, A.G. 1990. Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15K. Deep-Sea Research 37: 755-766.

Dickson, A.G. and Riley, J.P. 1979. The estimation of acid dissociation constants in seawater media from potentiometric titrations with strong base. I. The ionic product of water - KW. Marine Chemistry 7: 89-99.

Dlugokencky, E.J., Dutton, E.G., Novelli, P.C., Tans, P.P., Masarie, K.A., Lantz, K.O. and Madronich, S. 1996. Changes in CH4 and CO growth rates after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and their link with changes in tropical tropospheric UV flux. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 2761-2764.

Dlugokencky, E.J., Houweling, S., Bruhwiler, L., Masarie, K.A., Lang, P.M., Miller, J.B. and Tans, P.P. Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state? 2003. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 10.1029/2003GL018126.

Hansen, J.E. and Sato, M. 2001. Trends of measured climate forcing agents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 14,778-14,783.

Dlugokencky, E.J., Masarie, K.A., Lang, P.M. and Tans, P.P. 1998. Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature 393: 447-450.

Dlugokencky, E.J., Walter, B.P., Masarie, K.A., Lang, P.M. and Kasischke, E.S. 2001. Measurements of an anomalous global methane increase during 1998. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 499-502.

Fine, M. and Tchernov, D. 2007. Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification. Science 315: 1811.

Francey, R.J., Manning, M.R., Allison, C.E., Coram, S.A., Etheridge, D.M., Langenfelds, R.L., Lowe, D.C. and Steele, L.P. 1999. A history of δ13C in atmospheric CH4 from the Cape Grim Air Archive and Antarctic firn air. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 23,631-23,643.

Gnaiger, E., Gluth, G. and Weiser, W. 1978. pH fluctuations in an intertidal beach in Bermuda. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 851-857.

Grabherr, G., Gottfried, M. and Pauli, H. 1994. Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature 369: 448.

Grant, R.F., Kimball, B.A., Wall, G.W., Triggs, J.M., Brooks, T.J., Pinter Jr., P.J., Conley, M.M., Ottman, M.J., Lamorte, R.L., Leavitt, S.W., Thompson, T.L. and Matthias, A.D. 2004. Modeling elevated carbon dioxide effects on water relations, water use, and growth of irrigated sorghum. Agronomy Journal 96: 1693-1705.

Grigg, R.W. 1981. Coral reef development at high latitudes in Hawaii. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, Manila, Vol. 1: 687-693.

Grigg, R.W. 1997. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain - revisited. Coral Reefs 16: S33-S38.

Hansen, P.J. 2002. The effect of high pH on the growth and survival of marine phytoplankton: implications for species succession. Aquatic Microbiology and Ecology 28: 279-288.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D.W. and Medina-Elizade, M. 2006. Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 14,288-14,293.

Hein, M. Sand-Jensen, K. 1997. CO2 increases oceanic primary production. Nature 388: 526-527.

Hofer, H.R. 1992. Veranderungen in der Vegetation von 14 Gipfeln des Berninagebietes zwischen 1905 und 1985. Ber. Geobot. Inst. Eidgenoss. Tech. Hochsch. Stift. Rubel Zur 58: 39-54.

Holgate, S.J. 2007. On the decadal rates of sea level change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters 34: 10.1029/2006GL028492.

Holgate, S.J. and Woodworth, P.L. 2004. Evidence for enhanced coastal sea level rise during the 1990s. Geophysical Research Letters 31: 10.1029/2004GL019626.

Hope, G.S., Peterson, J.A., Radok, U. and Allison, I. 1976. The Equatorial Glaciers of New Guinea. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Howat, I.M., Joughin, I. and Scambos, T.A. 2007. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers. Science 315: 1559-1561.

Huang, J., Pray, C. and Rozelle, S. 2002. Enhancing the crops to feed the poor. Nature 418: 678-684.

Huntley, B. and Prentice, C. 1988. July temperatures in Europe from pollen data 6000 years before present. Science 241: 687-690.

Idso, C.D. and Idso, K.E. 2000. Forecasting world food supplies: The impact of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Technology 7S: 33-55.

Idso, K.E. and Idso, S.B. 1994. Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment in the face of environmental constraints: a review of the past 10 years’ research. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 69: 153-203.

Idso, S.B. 1998. CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic’s view of potential climate change. Climate Research 10: 69-82.

Idso, S.B., Idso, C.D. and Idso, K.E. 2000. CO2, global warming and coral reefs: Prospects for the future. Technology 7S: 71-94.

Idso, S.B., Idso, C.D. and Idso, K.E. 2003. The Specter of Species Extinction: Will Global Warming Decimate Earth’s Biosphere. Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide… (

Idso, S.B. and Kimball, B.A. 2001. CO2 enrichment of sour orange trees: 13 years and counting. Environmental and Experimental Botany 46: 147-153.

Ishii, M., Kimoto, M. and Kachi, M. 2003. Historical ocean subsurface temperature analysis with error estimates. Monthly Weather Review 131: 51-73.

Jevrejeva, S., Grinsted, A., Moore, J.C. and Holgate, S. 2006. Nonlinear trends and multiyear cycles in sea level records. Journal of Geophysical Research 111: 10.1029/2005JC003229.

Jurik, T.W., Weber, J.A. and Gates, D.M. 1984. Short-term effects of CO2 on gas exchange of leaves of bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) in the field. Plant Physiology 75: 1022-1026.

Kajiwara, K., Nagai, A. and Ueno, S. 1995. Examination of the effect of temperature, light intensity and zooxanthellae concentration on calcification and photosynthesis of scleractinian coral Acropora pulchra. J. School Mar. Sci. Technol. 40: 95-103.

Kearney, M.S. and Luckman, B.H. 1983. Holocene timberline fluctuations in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Science 221: 261-263.

Keller, F., Kienast, F. and Beniston, M. 2000. Evidence of response of vegetation to environmental change on high-elevation sites in the Swiss Alps. Regional Environmental Change 1: 70-77.

Khalil, M.A.K., Butenhoff, C.L. and Rasmussen, R.A. 2007. Atmospheric methane: Trends and cycles of sources and sinks. Environmental Science & Technology 10.1021/es061791t.

Klanderud, K. and Birks, H.J.B. 2003. Recent increases in species richness and shifts in altitudinal distributions of Norwegian mountain plants. Holocene 13: 1-6.

Kleypas, J.A., Buddemeier, R.W., Archer, D., Gattuso, J-P., Langdon, C., and Opdyke, B.N. 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284: 118-120.

Korotky, A.M., Pletnev, S.P., Pushkar, V.S., Grebennikova, T.A., Raszhigaeva, N.T., Sahebgareeva, E.D. and Mohova, L.M. 1988. Development of Natural Environment of the Southern Soviet Far East (Late Pleistocene-Holocene). Nauka, Moscow, USSR.

Kullman, L. 2002. Rapid recent range-margin rise of tree and shrub species in the Swedish Scandes. Journal of Ecology 90: 68-77.

Kullman, L. 2007. Long-term geobotanical observations of climate change impacts in the Scandes of West-Central Sweden. Nordic Journal of Botany 24: 445-467.

Lacoul, P. and Freedman, B. 2006. Recent observation of a proliferation of Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix. in high-altitude lakes of Mount Everest Region. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 38: 394-398.

Lassey, K.R., Lowe, D.C. and Manning, M.R. 2000. The trend in atmospheric methane δ13C and implications for constraints on the global methane budget. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 41-49.

Levitan, O., Rosenberg, G., Setlik, I., Setlikova, E., Grigel, J., Klepetar, J., Prasil, O. and Berman-Frank, I. 2007. Elevated CO2 enhances nitrogen fixation and growth in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Global Change Biology 13: 531-538.

Levitus, S., Stephens, C.M., Antonov, J.I. and Boyer, T.P. 2000. Yearly and Year-Season Upper Ocean Temperature Anomaly Fields, 1948-1998, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Lindholm, T. and Nummelin, C. 1999. Red tide of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra (Dinophyta) in a ferry-mixed coastal inlet. Hydrobiologia 393: 245-251.

Lombard, A., Cazenave, A., Le Traon, P.-Y. and Ishii, M. 2005. Contribution of thermal expansion to present-day sea-level change revisited. Global and Planetary Change 47: 1-16.

Lough, J.M. and Barnes, D.J. 1997. Several centuries of variation in skeletal extension, density and calcification in massive Porites colonies from the Great Barrier Reef: A proxy for seawater temperature and a background of variability against which to identify unnatural change. Journal of Experimental and Marine Biology and Ecology 211: 29-67.

Lough, J.B. and Barnes, D.J. 2000. Environmental controls on growth of the massive coral Porites. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 245: 225-243.

Lowe, D.C., Manning, M.R., Brailsford, G.W. and Bromley, A.M. 1997. The 1991-1992 atmospheric methane anomaly: Southern hemisphere 13C decrease and growth rate fluctuations. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 857-860.

Lu, Z., Jiao, N. and Zhang, H. 2006. Physiological changes in marine picocyanobacterial Synechococcus strains exposed to elevated CO2 partial pressure. Marine Biology Research 2: 424-430.

Lutaenko, K.A. 1993. Climatic optimum during the Holocene and the distribution of warm-water mollusks in the Sea of Japan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 102: 273-281.

Macedo, M.F., Duarte, P., Mendes, P. and Ferreira, G. 2001. Annual variation of environmental variables, phytoplankton species composition and photosynthetic parameters in a coastal lagoon. Journal of Plankton Research 23: 719-732.

Mann, M., Amman, C., Bradley, R., Briffa, K., Jones, P., Osborn, T., Crowley, T., Hughes, M., Oppenheimer, M., Overpeck, J., Rutherford, S., Trenberth, K. and Wigley, T. 2003. On past temperatures and anomalous late-20th century warmth. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 84: 256-257.

Mann, M.E. and Jones, P.D. 2003. Global surface temperatures over the past two millennia. Geophysical Research Letters 30: 10.1029/2003GL017814.

McNeil, B.I., Matear, R.J. and Barnes, D.J. 2004. Coral reef calcification and climate change: The effect of ocean warming. Geophysical Research Letters 31: 10.1029/2004GL021541.

Medina, M., Collins, A.G., Takaoka, T.L., Kuehl, J.V. and Boore, J.L. 2006. Naked corals: Skeleton loss in Scleractinia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U.S.A. 103: 9096-9100.

Medina-Elizade, M. and Lea, D.W. 2005. The mid-Pleistocene transition in the tropical Pacific. Science 310: 1009-1012.

Meskhidze, N. and Nenes, A. 2006. Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean. Science 314: 1419-1423.

Millero, F.J. 1995. Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59: 661-677.

Mucci, A. 1983. The solubility of calcite and aragonite in seawater at various salinities, temperatures, and one atmosphere total pressure. American Journal of Science 283: 780-799.

Nakicenovic, N., et al. 2000. IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Nie, B., Chen, T., Liang, M., Wang, Y., Zhong, J. and Zhu, Y. 1997. Relationship between coral growth rate and sea surface temperature in the northern part of South China Sea. Sci. China Ser. D 40: 173-182.

O’Dowd, C.D., Jimenez, J.L., Bahreini, R., Flagan, R.C., Seinfeld, J.H., Hameri, K., Pirjola, L., Kulmala, M., Jennings, S.G. and Hoffmann, T. 2002. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions. Nature 417: 632-636.

Overpeck, J.T. 1985. A pollen study of a late Quaternary peat bog, south-central Adirondack Mountains, New York. Geological Society of America Bulletin 96: 145-154.

Orr, J.C., Fabry, V.J., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Doney, S.C., Feely, R.A., Gnanadesikan, A., Gruber, N., Ishida, A., Joos, F., Key, R.M., Lindsay, K., Maier-Reimer, E., Matear, R., Monfray, P., Mouchet, A., Najjar, R.G., Plattner, G.-K., Rodgers, K.B., Sabine, C.L., Sarmiento, J.L., Schlitzer, R., Slater, R.D., Totterdell, I.J., Weirig, M.-F., Yamanaka, Y. and Yool, A. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437: 681-686.

Pagani, M., Arthur, M.A. and Freeman, K.H. 1999. Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Paleoceanography 14: 273-292.

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C., Hill, J.K., Thomas, C.D., Descimon, H., Huntley, B., Kaila, L., Kullberg, J., Tammaru, T., Tennent, W.J., Thomas, J.A. and Warren, M. 1999. Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399: 579-583.

Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37-42.

Porter, S.C. and Orombelli, G. 1985. Glacial concentration during the middle Holocene in the western Italian Alps: Evidence and implications. Geology 13: 296-298.

Prather, M., et al. 2001. Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Houghton, J.T., et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Raven, P.H. 2002. Science, sustainability, and the human prospect. Science 297: 954-959.

Reynaud, S., Ferrier-Pages, C., Boisson, F., Allemand, D. and Fairbanks, R.G. 2004. Effect of light and temperature on calcification and strontium uptake in the scleractinian coral Acropora verweyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279: 105-112.

Reynaud-Vaganay, S., Gattuso, J.P., Cuif, J.P., Jaubert, J. and Juillet-Leclerc, A. 1999. A novel culture technique for scleractinian corals: Application to investigate changes in skeletal δ18O as a function of temperature. Marine Ecology Progress Series 180: 121-130.

Riebesell, U. 2004. Effects of CO2 enrichment on marine phytoplankton. Journal of Oceanography 60: 719-729.

Riebesell, U., Wolf-Gladrow, D.A. and Smetacek, V. 1993. Carbon dioxide limitation of marine phytoplankton growth rates. Nature 361: 249-251.

Ritchie, J.C., Cwynar, L.C. and Spear, R.W. 1983. Evidence from north-west Canada for an early Holocene Milankovitch thermal maximum. Nature 305: 126-128.

Root, T.L., Price, J.T., Hall, K.R., Schneider, S.H., Rosenzweig, C. and Pounds, J.A. 2003. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421: 57-60.

Rubel, E. 1912. Pflanzengeographische Monographie des Berninagebietes. Engelmann, Leipzig, DE.

Santhanam, R., Srinivasan, A., Ramadhas, V. and Devaraj, M. 1994. Impact of Trichodesmium bloom on the plankton and productivity in the Tuticorin bay, southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Science 23: 27-30.

Saxe, H., Ellsworth, D.S. and Heath, J. 1998. Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere. New Phytologist 139: 395-436.

Schippers, P., Lurling, M. and Scheffer, M. 2004. Increase of atmospheric CO2 promotes phytoplankton productivity. Ecology Letters 7: 446-451.

Scoffin, T.P., Tudhope, A.W., Brown, B.E., Chansang, H. and Cheeney, R.F. 1992. Patterns and possible environmental controls of skeletogenesis of Porites lutea, South Thailand. Coral Reefs 11: 1-11.

Shepherd, A. and Wingham, D. 2007. Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. Science 315: 1529-1532.

Simpson, I.J., Blake, D.R. and Rowland, F.S. 2002. Implications of the recent fluctuations in the growth rate of tropospheric methane. Geophysical Research Letters 29: 10.1029/2001GL014521.

Smythe-Wright, D., Boswell, S.M., Breithaupt, P., Davidson, R.D., Dimmer, C.H. and Eiras Diaz, L.B. 2006. Methyl iodide production in the ocean: Implications for climate change. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20: 10.1029/2005GB002642.

Stanley Jr., G.D. 2003. The evolution of modern corals and their early history. Earth Science Reviews 60: 195-225.

Stanley Jr., G.D. and Fautin, D.G. 2001. The origins of modern corals. Science 291: 1913-1914.

Taira, K. 1975. Temperature variation of the “Kuroshio” and crustal movements in eastern and southeastern Asia 7000 years B.P. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 17: 333-338.

Tilman, D., Cassman, K.G., Matson, P.A., Naylor, R. and Polasky, S. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418: 671-677.

Tilman, D., Fargione, J., Wolff, B., D’Antonio, C., Dobson, A., Howarth, R., Schindler, D., Schlesinger, W.H., Simberloff, D. and Swackhamer, D. 2001. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292: 281-284.

Velitchko, A.A. and Klimanov, V.A. 1990. Climatic zonality of the northern hemisphere 5 or 6 thousand years B.P. Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Geographical Series, 5: 38-52.

Virtanen, R., Eskelinen, A. and Gaare, E. 2003. Long-term changes in alpine plant communities in Norway and Finland. In: Nagy, L., Grabherr, G., Korner, C. and Thompson, D.B.A. (Eds.), Alpine Biodiversity in Europe. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 411-422.

Waggoner, P.E. 1995. How much land can ten billion people spare for nature? Does technology make a difference? Technology in Society 17: 17-34.

Wallace, J.S. 2000. Increasing agricultural water use efficiency to meet future food production. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 82: 105-119.

Walther, G.-R., Beissner, S. and Burga, C.A. 2005. Trends in the upward shift of alpine plants. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 541-548.

Webb, T. 1985. Holocene palynology and climate. In: Paleoclimate Analysis and Modeling. A.D. Hecht (Ed.). Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, pp. 163-196.

Webb, T., Bartlein, P.J. and Kutzbach, J.E. 1987. Climatic change in eastern North America during the past 18,000 years: Comparisons of pollen data with model results. In: North America and Adjacent Oceans During the Last Deglaciation. W.F. Ruddiman and H.E. Wright, Jr. (Eds.), The Geology of North America, v. K-3. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 447-462.

Wijmstra, T.A. 1978. Paleobotany and climatic change. In: Climatic Change. J. Gribbin (Ed.), Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Wingenter, O.W., Haase, K.B., Zeigler, M., Blake, D.R., Rowland, F.S., Sive, B.C., Paulino, A., Thyrhaug, R., Larsen A., Schulz, K., Meyerhofer, M. and Riebesell, U. 2007. Unexpected consequences of increasing CO2 and ocean acidity on marine production of DMS and CH2CII: Potential climate impacts. Geophysical

Guest Column Sherwood B. Idso and Craig D. Idso -- Bio and Archives | Click to view Comments

Items of notes and interest from the web.